First, thanks to TES Connect for the resources reproduced here.
What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia causes difficulties in learning to read, write and spell. Short-term memory, mathematics, concentration, personal organisation and sequencing may also be affected.
Dyslexia usually arises from a weakness in the processing of language-based information. Biological in origin, it tends to run in families, but environmental factors also contribute.
Dyslexia can occur at any level of intellectual ability. It is not the result of poor motivation, emotional disturbance, sensory impairment or lack of opportunities, but it may occur alongside any of these.
The effects of dyslexia can be largely overcome by skilled specialist teaching and the use of compensatory strategies.
Here’s a powerful video that gives an insight into the challenging world dyslexic pupils face:
- Early recognition and intervention are the keys to success.
- Dyslexia does not have to prevent the individual from achieving and there are many people who are dyslexic who are successful in a wide range of different careers.
- Specialist multi-sensory tuition does help dyslexic people of all ages but can also help those with general literacy difficulties.
- The Dyslexia Institute is constantly working to ensure that all dyslexic people are identified and helped.
- Dyslexia does not affect intelligence; it can occur at any level of intellectual ability.
- Dyslexia is the most common of the learning difficulties, affecting 10% of the UK population. Up to 4% have severe dyslexia, including some 375,000 schoolchildren. It can affect people of all ages.
- Dyslexia is complex and there are a number of characteristics that are associated with it. These include poor auditory and/or visual memory, poor spelling, difficulties with reading, lack of phonological awareness, poor handwriting, difficulties with sequencing, confusion about left and right, difficulties with mathematics, poor comprehension skills and/or poor short-term memory.
- The number, type and severity of the characteristics varies from one dyslexic person to another. Therefore, dyslexia affects different people in different ways.
- The development of dyslexia is influenced by other factors, such as parenting, schooling, the individual’s intelligence and personality and social and economic factors.
- Several genes have been identified as possible causative factors. If one parent is dyslexic there is a 50% chance that any of their children will inherit dyslexia.
- Brain imaging has shown differences in specific areas of the dyslexic brain related to language processing compared to non-dyslexic brains.
- The difficulties that dyslexia causes may have serious social implications. Many dyslexic people have low self-esteem/confidence. The nature of the difficulties can be very frustrating and this can result in other behavioural characteristics, such as disruptive behaviour.
- A full formal assessment with an educational or occupational psychologist or specially trained teacher will establish whether or not an individual is dyslexic.
- The effects of dyslexia can be alleviated but dyslexia cannot be cured. The most effective and internationally recognised method of help is multi-sensory specialist tuition by a specially trained teacher.
- Dyslexic people tend to be very creative and artistic. They are often good lateral thinkers and have good problem-solving skills. It is for these reasons that they often make good architects, designers, engineers, IT experts or surgeons.